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Brahman said:

The qualities cannot be explained altogether distinctly (from one another). Passion, goodness, and darkness likewise are seen mixed up (with one another). They are attached to one another, they feed on one another. They all depend on one another, and likewise follow one another 2. There is no doubt of this, that as long 3 as there is goodness so long darkness exists. And as long as goodness and darkness, so long is passion said (to exist) here. They perform their journey together, in union, and moving about collectively. For they act with cause or without cause 4, moving in a body. Of all these acting with one another, but differing in development, the increase and diminution will now be stated. Where darkness is increased, abiding, 5 in the lower entities, there passion should be understood to be little, and goodness likewise to be less. Where

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passion is developed, abiding in those of the middle current 1, there darkness should be understood to be little, and goodness likewise to be less. And where goodness is developed, abiding in those of the upward current 2, there darkness should be understood to be little, and passion likewise to be less 3. Goodness is the cause of the modifications in the senses, and the enlightener 4. For there is no other higher duty laid down than goodness. Those who adhere to (the ways of) goodness go up; the passionate remain in the middle; the men of the quality of darkness, being connected with the lowest quality, go down 5. The three qualities abide in the three castes thus: darkness in the Sûdra, passion in the Kshatriya, and the highest, goodness, in the Brâhman6. Even from afar 7, darkness, goodness, and passion also, are seen to have been together and moving about collectively. We have never heard of them (as existing) separately. Seeing the sun rising, evildoers are alarmed, and travellers, suffering trouble from the heat, feel the warmth. The sun is goodness developed, evil-doers likewise are darkness, and the heat to the travellers is said to be a property of

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passion 1. The light in the sun is goodness; the heat is the quality of passion; and its eclipse on the Parvan 2 days must be understood to be of the quality of darkness. So in all shining bodies, there: exist three qualities. And they act by turns in the several places in several ways. Among immovable entities, darkness is in the form of their belonging to the lower species; the qualities of passion are variable; and the oleaginous property is of the quality of goodness 3. The day should be understood to be threefold, the night is stated to be threefold, and likewise months, half-months, years, seasons, and the conjunctions 4. Threefold are the gifts given 5, threefold the sacrifices performed, threefold are the

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worlds, threefold the gods, threefold the (departments of) knowledge, and threefold the path 1. The past, the present, and the future; piety, wealth, and lust; the Prâna, the Apâna, and the Udâna; these are the three qualities. And whatever there is in this world, all that is (made of) these three qualities 2. The three qualities--goodness, passion, and darkness also--are always acting unperceived. The creation of the qualities is eternal. Darkness, unperceived, holy 3, constant, unborn, womb, eternal, nature, change 4, destruction, Pradhâna, production and absorption, not developed, not small, unshaking, immovable, immutable, existent and also non-existent 5--all these, the unperceived, (consisting) of the three qualities, is said to be. These names should be learnt by men who ponder on matters relating to the self. He who understands correctly all the names of the unperceived, and the qualities, and its pure operations, he, freed from the body, understanding the truth about (all) distinctions, and being free from all misery, is released from all qualities.


328:1 Cf. Gîtâ inter alia, p. 104.

328:2 Cf. p. 318 supra.

328:3 So Arguna Misra. Nîlakantha says on this, 'However much goodness may be increased, it is still held in cheek by darkness, and thus there is the continual relation of that which checks and that which is checked between the three qualities; hence they are alike. So also passion being increased, holds goodness and darkness in cheek. The sense seems to be that the qualities dominate all in this world and exist together though varying in strength' (Gîtâ, p. 73).

328:4 I. e. spontaneously, Arguna Misra. Cf. Sânti Parvan (Moksha), chap. 194, st. 35.

328:5 It is in the lower species that darkness is predominant.

329:1 I. e. the human species, Arguna Misra. Cf. Gîtâ, p. 109.

329:2 See Gîtâ, p. 109, also p. 327 supra. In his Sânkhyatattvakaumudî, Vâkaspati Misra applies the epithet to Yogins (see p. 13 of Târânâth's edition, and the editor's note there)

329:3 Cf. Gîtâ, p. 108.

329:4 Cf. Gîtâ, p. 109. The modifications of the senses constituting perception by them is an operation of the quality of goodness. This seems to be the meaning of the text; as to this, cf. Tattvakaumudi, p. 14 (Târânâth's edition).

329:5 See Gîtâ, p. 109; the words are nearly identical.

329:6 Cf. Sânti Parvan (Moksha), chap. 188, st. 15. The Vaisya is omitted here.

329:7 I. e. Arguna Misra says, even after much observation.

330:1 This illustrates the existence of the qualities as one body. Even the enlightening sun, which embodies the quality of goodness, produces effects which belong to the other qualities. The fear and sorrow which evil-doers, that is thieves, feel, is an effect of the rising of the sun, which appertains to the quality of darkness, and the heat as being the cause of vexation and consequent delusion to travellers, appertains to the quality of passion.

330:2 I. e. the days of the moon's conjunction or opposition.

330:3 I understand this to mean that in the 'immovable entities' the three qualities co-exist; the birth in the lower species is an effect of darkness; the variable qualities, viz. the heat, &c., as Arguna Misra says, are the properties of passion; and the oleaginous properties among them appertain to goodness, as, says Arguna Misra, they are sources of pleasure (cf. Gîtâ, p. 118). Nîlakantha says, 'Immovable entities being very unintelligent, darkness is very much developed among them,' but this last, as an interpretation of tiryagbhâvagata, appears to me to be alike unwarranted and inappropriate here.

330:4 Does this mean the period about the close of one and beginning of another yuga or age? That is the only sense ejusdem generis with the words preceding it that I can think of;--yet the jump from years to yuga-sandhis is a long one.

330:5 Cf. Gîtâ, p. 120. With reference to some, at least, of the things enumerated here, the division would be rather fanciful.

331:1 see these three mentioned at Khândogya, pp. 340-359. As to departments of knowledge, cf. Gîtâ, p. 84; Arguna Misra reads, 'threefold the Vedas.'

331:2 The universe is all developed from the Prakriti, which is merely the three 'qualities in equilibrium.' Cf. Sânkhya-sûtra I, 61.

331:3 Because it gives final emancipation to one who discriminates it from Purusha, Arguna Misra. Cf. Sânkhya-sûtra II, 1 seq., and Sânkhya-kârikâ, p. 56 seq., and commentary. For another list of names of Prakriti, see Svetâsvatara (comm.), p. 283.

331:4 Nature is not a development from anything, and hence is called avikriti in Sânkhya-kârikâ 3; but 'change' here probably means the whole aggregate of Vikritis, 'changes' or developments, which make up Prakriti; or by a different derivation it may, perhaps, also mean that from which all development or change takes place.

331:5 See Sânkhya-sûtra V, 52-56; and also I, 26, and commentary here. The Vedântins speak of Mâyâ--which answers to what the p. 332nkhyas call Prakriti (see Svetâsvatara, p. 340, and Sânkhya-sûtra I, 69, and commentary there)--as 'sattvâsattvâbhyâmanirvâkya.'

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