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On this, too, they relate an ancient story (showing) of what nature is the institution of the Kâturhotra 4. The due performance of it in its entirety is now taught. Hear me, O good woman! state this wonderful

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mystery. The instrument, the action, the agent, and emancipation 1, these, indeed, O you of a (pure) heart! are the four Hotris by whom this universe is enveloped. Hear also the assignment of causes exhaustively 2. The nose, and the tongue, and the eye, and the skin, and the ear as the fifth, mind and understanding, these seven should be understood to be the causes of (the knowledge of 3) qualities. Smell, and taste, and colour, sound, and touch as the fifth, the object of the mental operation and the object of the understanding 4, these seven are causes of action. He who smells, he who eats, he who sees, he who speaks, and he who hears as the fifth, he who thinks, and he who understands, these seven should be understood to be the causes of the agents 5. These 6, being possessed of qualities 7, enjoy their own qualities, agreeable and disagreeable. And I am here devoid of qualities. Thus these seven are the causes of emancipation 8. And among the learned who understand (everything), the

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qualities 1 which are in the position of the deities, each in its own place, always enjoy the offering according to prescribed rules. To him who is not learned, eating various (kinds of) food, the (feeling of this or that being) mine adheres. And cooking food for himself, he, through the (feeling of this or that being) mine, is ruined 2. The eating of that which should not be eaten, and drinking of intoxicating drinks also destroys him. He destroys the food, and destroying that food he is destroyed in return. The learned man, being (himself) a ruler, destroying this food again produces it 3. And not even a trifling obstacle 4 arises to him from that food. Whatever is thought by the mind 5, whatever is spoken by speech, whatever is heard by the ear, whatever is seen by the eye, whatever is touched by the sense of touch, and whatever is smelt by the nose, absorbing all these offerings from all sides, together with those (senses) which with the mind are six 6, my fire 7 of (high) qualifications 8, shines dwelling within the body. My sacrifice of concentration of mind is in progress, the performance of which yields the fire 9 of knowledge;

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the Stotra in which, is the upward life-wind; the Sastra, the downward life-wind; and which is very beneficial on account of the abandonment of everything 1; the Brahman priest in which, is the counsellor in all action 2; the Hotri priest, the self the Adhvaryu priest, (the self) whose hymn of praise 3 is the offering; the Sastra of the Prasâstri, truth; and the Dakshinâ, final emancipation. On, this, too, Rik verses are recited by the men who understand Nârâyan4--the god Nârâyana to whom they formerly offered animal 5 (offerings). On that Sâman hymns 6, are sung, of which an illustration is stated 7.

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O modest one! understand that god Nârâyana, who is the self of everything.


277:1 Arguna Misra understands these to be three Savanas.

277:2 Of taking into the nâdîs the food digested in the night, this is the morning Savanas; the afternoon Savana is the kindling of the gastric fire for digesting new food.

277:3 The Vâmadevya is a sûkta beginning 'Kayâ nas kitrâ' (Rv. IV, 31, 1). The singing of it is the third Savana, Arguna Misra. And see Taittirîya-âranyaka, p. 889.

277:4 Cf. Aitareya-brâhmana (Haug), pp. 132, 133.

278:1 Cf. as to the three first, Gîtâ, p. 123. They are the four categories, to one or other of which everything in the world may be referred.

278:2 The texts here differ. Arguna Misra's reading he interprets to mean 'the subjugation of these Hotris.' The reading followed in the text seems to some extent to be supported by the sequel. But the passage altogether is not very clear.

278:3 So Arguna Misra--through these the knowledge of the qualities of objects of sense is acquired.

278:4 The sensations, or perceptions, referred to lead to action.

278:5 This seems to mean, that the powers of smelling, &c., when attributed to the self, make him appear as an agent, as an active principle.

278:6 I. e. action, agent, and instrument, Arguna Misra.

278:7 I. e. the three, goodness, passion, and darkness.

278:8 It is these seven from which the self is to be emancipated. must mean the self, not the Brâhmana who speaks.

279:1 I. e., I presume, the senses. Cf. Gîtâ, p. 50. The learned do. not suppose their self to have aught to do with them. Cf. Gîtâ, p. 64.

279:2 Cf. Gîtâ, p. 53; Manu III, 118.

279:3 His knowledge gives him this power. He is not 'destroyed' by the food as the other man is. Nîlakantha compares Brihadâranyaka, p. 884. See too p. 260, note  1 supra.

279:4 I. e. mischief owing to the destruction of life necessary for getting food, says Nîlakantha quoting Brihadâranyaka, p. 913.

279:5 This includes the operation of the understanding also. Nîlakantha says this verse explains what the word 'food' means here.

279:6 For the phrase cf. Gîtâ, p. 112.

279:7 That is to say, my self, Arguna Misra. See p. 259, note  3 supra.

279:8 As the objects of sense &c. are all absorbed into it.

279:9 It is called 'fire,' as it burns up all action. Cf. Gîtâ, p. 62.

280:1 Arguna Misra's commentary is not intelligible here, so I follow Nîlakantha, but diffidently.

280:2 I. e. the mind, say the commentators. 'Mantâ' simply is given among the synonyms of Ahankâra at Sânkhya-sâra, p. 16.

280:3 I. e. the actions performed for knowledge of the truth, Arguna Misra.

280:4 Nîlakantha refers to a Rik 'Tapa âsîd-grihapatih,' and also the famous allegory at the end of the Taittirîya-âranyaka. These are cited, he says, as authorities for this 'sacrifice (consisting of) concentration of mind.'

280:5 I. e. the senses, Nîlakantha. Arguna Misra compares the whole passage with the Purusha Sûkta, which are the Rik verses alluded to, according to him. He refers for further explanations to his own commentary on that sûkta of the Rig-veda.

280:6 They sing these hymns, out of the gratification produced by knowledge of the self, says Nîlakantha, and he cites Taittirîya-âranyaka, p. 749. See also Taittirîya-upanishad, p. 138, and Sankara's commentary there.

280:7 The readings of our texts here are not very satisfactory. The illustration is stated, says Nîlakantha, whose reading we follow, by the Taittirîyas in the passage referred to in the last note. Arguna Misra's reading means 'such as Tâhu kâhu,' which would seem to be the words of the Sâman hymn referred to. But his commentary does not show what the words before him were. The whole figure as drawn out in this passage is not quite clear, though the general sense is pretty intelligible. Cf. the allegories at Aitareya-brâhmana, pp. 132, 133, and at the close of the Taittirîya-âranyaka.

Next: Chapter XI