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Yet again, O you of mighty arms! listen to my excellent 2 words, which, out of a wish for your welfare, I speak to you who are delighted (with them). Not the multitudes of gods, nor the great sages know my source; for I am in every way 3 the origin of the gods and great sages. Of (all) mortals, he who knows me to be unborn, without beginning, the great lord of the world, being free from delusion, is released from all sins. Intelligence, knowledge, freedom from delusion, forgiveness, truth, restraint of the senses, tranquillity, pleasure, pain, birth, death, fear, and also security, harmlessness, equability, contentment, penance, (making) gifts, glory, disgrace, all these different tempers 4 of living beings are from me alone. The seven great sages, and likewise the four ancient Manus 5, whose descendants are (all) these people in the world, were all born from my

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mind 1, (partaking) of my powers. Whoever correctly knows these powers and emanations of mine, becomes possessed of devotion free from indecision; of this (there is) no doubt. The wise, full of love 2, worship me, believing that I am the origin of all, and that all moves on through me. (Placing their) minds on me, offering (their) lives to me, instructing each other, and speaking about me, they are always contented and happy. To these, who are constantly devoted, and who worship with love,, I give that knowledge by which they attain to me. And remaining in their hearts, I destroy, with the brilliant lamp of knowledge, the darkness born of ignorance in such (men) only, out of compassion for them.

Arguna said:

You are the supreme Brahman, the supreme goal, the holiest of the holy. All sages, as well as the divine sage Nârada, Asita 3, Devala, and Vyâsa, call you the eternal being, divine, the first god, the unborn, the all-pervading. And so, too, you tell me yourself, O Kesava! I believe all this that you tell me (to be) true; for, O lord! neither the gods nor demons understand your manifestation 4. You only know your self by your self. O best of beings! creator of all things! lord of all things! god of gods! lord of the universe! be pleased to declare without, exception your divine emanations, by which emanations

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you stand pervading all these worlds. How shall I know you, O you of mystic power! always meditating on you? And in what various entities 1, O lord! should I meditate on you? Again, O Ganârdana! do you yourself declare your powers and emanations; because hearing this nectar, I (still) feel no satiety.

The Deity said:

Well then, O best of Kauravas! I will state to you my own divine emanations; but (only) the chief (ones), for there is no end to the extent of my (emanations). I am the self, O Gudâkesa! seated in the hearts of all beings 2. I am the beginning and the middle and the end also of all beings. I am Vishnu among the Âdityas 3, the beaming sun among the shining (bodies); I am Marîki among the Maruts 4, and the moon among the lunar mansions 5. Among the Vedas, I am the Sâma-veda 6. I am Indra among the gods. And I am mind among the senses 7. I am consciousness in (living) beings. And I am Sankara 8 among the Rudras, the lord of wealth 9 among Yakshas and Rakshases. And I am fire among the Vasus, and Meru 10 among the high-topped (mountains). And know me, O Arguna! to

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be Brihaspati, the chief among domestic priests. I am Skanda among generals. I am the ocean among reservoirs of water 1. I am Bhrigu among the great sages. I am the single syllable (Om  2) among words. Among sacrifices I am the Gapa sacrifice 3; the Himâlaya among the firmly-fixed (mountains); the Asvattha 4 among all trees, and Nârada among divine sages; Kitraratha among the heavenly choristers, the sage Kapila among the Siddhas 5. Among horses know me to be Ukkaissravas 6, brought forth by (the labours for) the nectar; and Airâvata among the great elephants, and the ruler. of men among men 7. I am the thunderbolt among weapons, the wish-giving (cow) among cows. And I am love which generates 8. Among serpents I am Vâsuki. Among Nâga 9 snakes I am Ananta; I am Varuna among aquatic beings. And I am Aryaman among the manes, and Yama 10 among rulers. Among demons, too, I am Pralhâda. I am the king of death (Kâla, time) among those that count 11. Among beasts I

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am the lord of beasts, and the son of Vinatâ 1 among birds. I am the wind among those that blow 2. I am Râma 3 among those that wield weapons. Among fishes I am Makara 4, and among streams the Gâhnavî 5. Of created things I am the beginning and the end and the middle also, O Arguna! Among sciences, I am the science of the Adhyâtma, and I am the argument of controversialists. Among letters I am the letter A 6, and among the group of compounds the copulative 7 compound. I myself am time inexhaustible, and I the creator whose faces are in all directions. I am death who seizes all, and the source of what is to be. And among females, fame 8, fortune, speech, memory, intellect, courage. forgiveness. Likewise among Sâman hymns, I am the Brihat-sâman 9, and I the Gâyatrî 10 among metres. I am Mârgasîrsha among the months, the spring

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among the seasons 1; of cheats, I am the game of dice; I am the glory of the glorious, I am victory, I am industry, I am the goodness of the good. I am Vâsudeva among the descendants of Vrishni 2, and Arguna among the Pândavas. Among sages also, I am Vyâsa 3; and among the discerning ones, I am the discerning Usanas 4. I am the rod of those that restrain, and the policy 5 of those that desire victory. I am silence respecting secrets. I am the knowledge of those that have knowledge And, O Arguna! I am also that which is the seed of all things. There is nothing movable or immovable which can exist without me. O terror of your foes! there is no end to my divine emanations. Here I have declared the extent of (those) emanations only in part. Whatever thing (there is) of power, or glorious, or splendid, know all that to be produced from portions of my energy. Or rather, O Arguna! what have you to do, knowing all this at large? I stand supporting all this by (but) a single portion (of myself) 6.


86:1 Cf. p. 79 supra.

86:2 As referring to the supreme soul.

86:3 As creator, as moving agent in workings of the intellect, &c.

86:4 The names are not always names of 'tempers,' but the corresponding 'temper' must be understood.

86:5 The words are also otherwise construed, 'The four ancients (Sanaka, Sanandana, Sanâtana, Sanatkumâra) and the Manus.' According to the later mythology the Manus are fourteen.

87:1 By the mere operation of my thought. As to ancients, cf. Aitareya-âranyaka, p. 136.

87:2 Sankara renders the word here by perseverance in pursuit of truth.

87:3 Ânandagiri calls Asita father of Devala. See also Davids' Buddhism, p. 185; Müller's Anc. Sansk. Lit., p. 463.

87:4 Scil. in human form for the good of the gods and the destruction of demons.

88:1 To know you fully being impossible, what special manifestation of you should we resort to for our meditations?

88:2 P. 129 infra.

88:3 'Âditya is used in the Veda chiefly as a general epithet for a number of solar deities.' Max Müller, Hibbert Lectures, p. 264.

88:4 The storm-gods, as Max Müller calls them.

88:5 Cf. Sutta Nipâta, p. 121.

88:6 As being, probably, full of music.

88:7 Cf. Khândogya, p. 121, where Sankara says, 'Mind is the chief of man's inner activities.'

88:8 Now the third member of our Trinity.

88:9 Kubera.

88:10 The Golden Mount.

89:1 Cf. Sutta Nipâta, p. 121.

89:2 Vide p. 79 supra.

89:3 Gapa is the silent meditation. Madhusûdana says it is superior owing to its not involving the slaughter of any animal, &c.

89:4 The fig tree. It is the symbol of 'life' in chapter XV infra.

89:5 Those who even from birth are possessed of piety, knowledge, indifference to the world, and superhuman power. Cf. Svetâsvatara-upanishad, p. 357.

89:6 This is Indra's horse, brought out at the churning of the ocean. Airâvata is Indra's elephant.

89:7 Cf. Sutta Nipâta, p. 121.

89:8 I. e. not the merely carnal passion. Cf. p. 74 supra.

89:9 Nâgas are without poison, says Srîdhara. Varuna is the sea-god.

89:10 Yama is death, and Pralhâda the virtuous demon for whom Vishnu became incarnate as the man-lion. As to manes, see Goldstücker's Remains, I, 133.

89:11 'Counts the number of men's sins,' Râmânuga; Srîdhara says p. 90 this refers to 'time, with its divisions into years, months,' &c.; while a little further on it means 'time eternal.'

90:1 I. e. the Garuda or eagle, who is the vehicle of Vishnu in Hindu mythology.

90:2 'Those who have the capacity of motion,' says Râmânuga.

90:3 The hero of the Hindu epos, Râmâyana, translated into verse by Mr. R. T. H. Griffith.

90:4 The dolphin.

90:5 The Ganges.

90:6 That letter is supposed to comprehend all language. Cf. Aitareya-âranyaka, p. 346, and. another text there cited by Mâdhava in his commentary (p. 348).

90:7 This is said to be the best, because all its members are co-ordinate with one another, not one depending on another.

90:8 I. e. the deities of fame, &c.

90:9 See, as to this, Muir, Sanskrit Texts, vol. i, p. 16. Sankara says this hymn relates to final emancipation.

90:10 Cf. Khândogya-upanishad, p. 181, where Sankara says, 'Gâyatrî is the chief metre, because it is the means to a knowledge of the Brahman.' It is the metre of the celebrated verse 'Om Tatsavitur,' &c.

91:1 Cf. Khândogya-upanishad, p. 126. Mârgasîrsha is November-December. Madhusûdana says this is the best month, as being neither too hot nor too cold; but see Schlegel's Bhagavadgîtâ, ed. Lassen, p. 276.

91:2 One of Krishna's ancestors.

91:3 The compiler of the Vedas.

91:4 The preceptor of the Daityas or demons. A work on politics is ascribed to him.

91:5 Making peace, bribing, &c.

91:6 Cf. Purusha-sûkta (Muir, Sanskrit Texts, vol. i, p, 9).

Next: Chapter XI