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Worm (1.) Heb. sas (Isa 51:8), denotes the caterpillar of the clothes-moth. (2.) The manna bred worms ( tola'im ), but on the Sabbath there was not any worm ( rimmah ) therein (Exo 16:20, Exo 16:24). Here these words refer to caterpillars or larvae, which feed on corrupting matter. These two Hebrew words appear to be interchangeable (Job 25:6; Isa 14:11). Tola'im in some places denotes the caterpillar (Deu 28:39; Jon 4:7), and rimmah , the larvae, as bred from putridity (Job 17:14; Job 21:26; Job 24:20). In Mic 7:17, where it is said, "They shall move out of their holes like worms," perhaps serpents or "creeping things," or as in the Revised Version, "crawling things," are meant. The word is used figuratively in Job 25:6; Psa 22:6; Isa 41:14; Mar 9:44, Mar 9:46, Mar 9:48; Isa 66:24.

Wormwood Heb. la'anah , the Artemisia absinthium of botanists. It is noted for its intense bitterness (Deu 29:18; Pro 5:4; Jer 9:15; Amo 5:7). It is a type of bitterness, affliction, remorse, punitive suffering. In Amo 6:12 this Hebrew word is rendered "hemlock" (R.V., "wormwood"). In the symbolical language of the Apocalypse (Rev 8:10, Rev 8:11) a star is represented as falling on the waters of the earth, causing the third part of the water to turn wormwood. The name by which the Greeks designated it, absinthion , means "undrinkable." The absinthe of France is distilled from a species of this plant. The "southernwood" or "old man," cultivated in cottage gardens on account of its fragrance, is another species of it.

Worship Homage rendered to God which it is sinful (idolatry) to render to any created being (Exo 34:14; Isa 2:8). Such worship was refused by Peter (Act 10:25, Act 10:26) and by an angel (Rev 22:8, Rev 22:9).

Worshipper (Gr. neocoros = temple sweeper [Act 19:35] of the great goddess Diana). This name neocoros appears on most of the extant Ephesian coins

Wrestle (Eph 6:12). See GAMES.

Writing The art of writing must have been known in the time of the early Pharaohs. Moses is commanded "to write for a memorial in a book" (Exo 17:14) a record of the attack of Amalek. Frequent mention is afterwards made of writing (Exo 28:11, Exo 28:21, Exo 28:29, Exo 28:36; Exo 31:18; Exo 32:15, Exo 32:16; Exo 34:1, Exo 34:28; Exo 39:6, Exo 39:14, Exo 39:30). The origin of this art is unknown, but there is reason to conclude that in the age of Moses it was well known. The inspired books of Moses are the most ancient extant writings, although there are written monuments as old as about B.C.2000. The words expressive of "writing," "book," and "ink," are common to all the branches or dialects of the Semitic language, and hence it has been concluded that this art must have been known to the earliest Semites before they separated into their various tribes, and nations, and families. "The Old Testament and the discoveries of Oriental archaeology alike tell us that the age of the Exodus was throughout the world of Western Asia an age of literature and books, of readers and writers, and that the cities of Palestine were stored with the contemporaneous records of past events inscribed on imperishable clay. They further tell us that the kinsfolk and neighbours of the Israelites were already acquainted with alphabetic writing, that the wanderers in the desert and the tribes of Edom were in contact with the cultured scribes and traders of Ma'in [Southern Arabia], and that the 'house of bondage' from which Israel had escaped was a land where the art of writing was blazoned not only on the temples of the gods, but also on the dwellings of the rich and powerful." Sayce. (See DEBIR; PHOENICIA.) The "Book of the Dead" was a collection of prayers and formulae, by the use of which the souls of the dead were supposed to attain to rest and peace in the next world. It was composed at various periods from the earliest time to the Persian conquest. It affords an interesting glimpse into the religious life and system of belief among the ancient Egyptians. We learn from it that they believed in the existence of one Supreme Being, the immortality of the soul, judgment after death, and the resurrection of the body. It shows, too, a high state of literary activity in Egypt in the time of Moses. It refers to extensive libraries then existing. That of Ramessium, in Thebes, e.g., built by Rameses II., contained 20,000 books. When the Hebrews entered Canaan it is evident that the art of writing was known to the original inhabitants, as appears, e.g., from the name of the city Debir having been at first Kirjath-sepher, i.e., the "city of the book," or the "book town" (Jos 10:38; Jos 15:15; Jdg 1:11). The first mention of letter-writing is in the time of David (Sa2 11:14, Sa2 11:15). Letters are afterwards frequently spoken of (Kg1 21:8, Kg1 21:9, Kg1 21:11; Kg2 10:1, Kg2 10:3, Kg2 10:6, Kg2 10:7; Kg2 19:14; Ch2 21:12; Ch2 30:1, Ch2 30:6, etc.).

Yarn Found only in Kg1 10:28, Ch2 1:16. The Heb. word mikveh , i.e., "a stringing together," so rendered, rather signifies a host, or company, or a string of horses. The Authorized Version has: "And Solomon had horses brought out of Egypt, and linen yarn: the king's merchants received the linen yarn at a price;" but the Revised Version correctly renders: "And the horses which Solomon had were brought out of Egypt; the king's merchants received them in droves, each drove at a price."

Year Heb. shanah , meaning "repetition" or "revolution" (Gen 1:14; Gen 5:3). Among the ancient Egyptians the year consisted of twelve months of thirty days each, with five days added to make it a complete revolution of the earth round the sun. The Jews reckoned the year in two ways, (1.) according to a sacred calendar, in which the year began about the time of the vernal equinox, with the month Abib; and (2.) according to a civil calendar, in which the year began about the time of the autumnal equinox, with the month Nisan. The month Tisri is now the beginning of the Jewish year.

Yeshebi The Hebrew word rendered "inhabitants" in Jos 17:7, but probably rather the name of the village Yeshepheh, probably Yassuf, 8 miles south of Shechem.

Yoke (1.) Fitted on the neck of oxen for the purpose of binding to them the traces by which they might draw the plough, etc. (Num 19:2; Deu 21:3). It was a curved piece of wood called 'ol . (2.) In Jer 27:2; Jer 28:10, Jer 28:12 the word in the Authorized Version rendered "yoke" is motah , which properly means a "staff," or as in the Revised Version, "bar." These words in the Hebrew are both used figuratively of severe bondage, or affliction, or subjection (Lev 26:13; Kg1 12:4; Isa 47:6; Lam 1:14; Lam 3:27). In the New Testament the word "yoke" is also used to denote servitude (Mat 11:29, Mat 11:30; Act 15:10; Gal 5:1). (3.) In Sa1 11:7, Kg1 19:21, Job 1:3 the word thus translated is tzemed , which signifies a pair, two oxen yoked or coupled together, and hence in Sa1 14:14 it represents as much land as a yoke of oxen could plough in a day, like the Latin jugum . In Isa 5:10 this word in the plural is translated "acres."