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Vision (Luk 1:22), a vivid apparition, not a dream (compare Luk 24:23; Act 26:19; Co2 12:1).

Vows Voluntary promises which, when once made, were to be kept if the thing vowed was right. They were made under a great variety of circumstances (Gen 28:18; Lev 7:16; Num 30:2; Deu 23:18; Jdg 11:30, Jdg 11:39; Sa1 1:11; Jon 1:16; Act 18:18; Act 21:23).

Vulture (1.) Heb. da'ah (Lev 11:14). In the parallel passage (Deu 14:13) the Hebrew word used is ra'ah , rendered " glede ;" LXX., " gups ;" Vulg., " milvus ." A species of ravenous bird, distinguished for its rapid flight. "When used without the epithet 'red,' the name is commonly confined to the black kite. The habits of the bird bear out the allusion in Isa 34:15, for it is, excepting during the winter three months, so numerous everywhere in Palestine as to be almost gregarious." (See EAGLE.) (2.) In Job 28:7 the Heb. 'ayyah is thus rendered. The word denotes a clamorous and a keen-sighted bird of prey. In Lev 11:14 and Deu 14:13 it is rendered "kite" (q.v.).

Wafers Thin cakes (Exo 16:31; Exo 29:2, Exo 29:23; Lev 2:4; Lev 7:12; Lev 8:26; Num 6:15, Num 6:19) used in various offerings.

Wages Rate of (mention only in Mat 20:2); to be punctually paid (Lev 19:13; Deu 24:14, Deu 24:15); judgments threatened against the withholding of (Jer 22:13; Mal 3:5; compare Jam 5:4); paid in money (Mat 20:1); to Jacob in kind (Gen 29:15, Gen 29:20; Gen 30:28; Gen 31:7, Gen 31:8, Gen 31:41).

Wagon Heb. aghalah ; so rendered in Gen 45:19, Gen 45:21, Gen 45:27; Gen 46:5; Num 7:3, Num 7:7, Num 7:8, but elsewhere rendered "cart" (Sa1 6:7, etc.). This vehicle was used for peaceful purposes. In Eze 23:24, however, it is the rendering of a different Hebrew word, and denotes a war-chariot.

Wailing-place, Jews' A section of the western wall of the temple area, where the Jews assemble every Friday afternoon to bewail their desolate condition (Psa 79:1, Psa 79:4, Psa 79:5). The stones in this part of the wall are of great size, and were placed, as is generally believed, in the position in which they are now found in the time of Solomon. "The congregation at the wailing-place i one of the most solemn gatherings left to the Jewish Church, and as the writer gazed at the motley concourse he experienced a feeling of sorrow that the remnants of the chosen race should be heartlessly thrust outside the sacred enclosure of their fathers' holy temple by men of an alien race and an alien creed. Many of the elders, seated on the ground, with their backs against the wall, on the west side of the area, and with their faces turned toward the eternal house, read out of their well-thumbed Hebrew books passages from the prophetic writings, such as Isa 64:9" (King's Recent Discoveries, etc.). The wailing-place of the Jews, viewed in its past spiritual and historic relations, is indeed "the saddest nook in this vale of tears." (See LAMENTATIONS, BOOK OF.)

Wall Cities were surrounded by walls, as distinguished from "unwalled villages" (Eze 38:11; Lev 25:29). They were made thick and strong (Num 13:28; Deu 3:5). Among the Jews walls were built of stone, some of those in the temple being of great size (Kg1 6:7; Kg1 7:9; Kg1 20:30; Mar 13:1, Mar 13:2). The term is used metaphorically of security and safety (Isa 26:1; Isa 60:18; Rev 21:12). (See FENCE.)

Wandering Of the Israelites in the wilderness in consequence of their rebellious fears to enter the Promised Land (Num 14:26). They wandered for forty years before they were permitted to cross the Jordan (Jos 4:19; Jos 5:6). The record of these wanderings is given in Num. 33:1-49. Many of the stations at which they camped cannot now be identified. Questions of an intricate nature have been discussed regarding the "Wanderings," but it is enough for us to take the sacred narrative as it stands, and rest assured that "He led them forth by the right way" (Psa 107:1, Psa 107:33). (See WILDERNESS.)

War The Israelites had to take possession of the Promised Land by conquest. They had to engage in a long and bloody war before the Canaanitish tribes were finally subdued. Except in the case of Jericho and Ai, the war did not become aggressive till after the death of Joshua. Till then the attack was always first made by the Canaanites. Now the measure of the iniquity of the Canaanites was full, and Israel was employed by God to sweep them away from off the face of the earth. In entering on this new stage of the war, the tribe of Judah, according to divine direction, took the lead. In the days of Saul and David the people of Israel engaged in many wars with the nations around, and after the division of the kingdom into two they often warred with each other. They had to defend themselves also against the inroads of the Egyptians, the Assyrians, and the Babylonians. The whole history of Israel from first to last presents but few periods of peace. The Christian life is represented as a warfare, and the Christian graces are also represented under the figure of pieces of armour (Eph 6:11; Th1 5:8; Ti2 2:3, Ti2 2:4). The final blessedness of believers is attained as the fruit of victory (Rev 3:21).