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Schools of the Prophets (Sa1 19:18; Kg2 2:3, Kg2 2:5, Kg2 2:7, Kg2 2:12, Kg2 2:15) were instituted for the purpose of training young men for the prophetical and priestly offices. (See PROPHET; SAMUEL.)

Scorpions Mentioned along with serpents (Deu 8:15). Used also figuratively to denote wicked persons (Eze 2:6; Luk 10:19); also a particular kind of scourge or whip (Kg1 12:11). Scorpions were a species of spider. They abounded in the Jordan valley.

Scourging (Kg1 12:11). Variously administered. In no case were the stripes to exceed forty (Deu 25:3; compare Co2 11:24). In the time of the apostles, in consequence of the passing of what was called the Porcian law, no Roman citizen could be scourged in any case (Acts 16:22-37). (See BASTINADO.) In the scourging of our Lord (Mat 27:26; Mar 15:15) the words of prophecy (Isa 53:5) were fulfilled.

Scribes Anciently held various important offices in the public affairs of the nation. The Hebrew word so rendered (sopher) is first used to designate the holder of some military office (Jdg 5:14; A.V., "pen of the writer;" R.V., "the marshal's staff;" marg., "the staff of the scribe"). The scribes acted as secretaries of state, whose business it was to prepare and issue decrees in the name of the king (Sa2 8:17; Sa2 20:25; Ch1 18:16; Ch1 24:6; Kg1 4:3; Kg2 12:9; 18:18-37, etc.). They discharged various other important public duties as men of high authority and influence in the affairs of state. There was also a subordinate class of scribes, most of whom were Levites. They were engaged in various ways as writers. Such, for example, was Baruch, who "wrote from the mouth of Jeremiah all the words of the Lord" (Jer 36:4, Jer 36:32). In later times, after the Captivity, when the nation lost its independence, the scribes turned their attention to the law, gaining for themselves distinction by their intimate acquaintance with its contents. On them devolved the duty of multiplying copies of the law and of teaching it to others (Ezr 7:6, Ezr 7:10; Neh 8:1, Neh 8:4, Neh 8:9, Neh 8:13). It is evident that in New Testament times the scribes belonged to the sect of the Pharisees, who supplemented the ancient written law by their traditions (Matt. 23), thereby obscuring it and rendering it of none effect. The titles "scribes" and "lawyers" (q.v.) are in the Gospels interchangeable (Mat 22:35; Mar 12:28; Luk 20:39, etc.). They were in the time of our Lord the public teachers of the people, and frequently came into collision with him. They afterwards showed themselves greatly hostile to the apostles (Act 4:5; Act 6:12). Some of the scribes, however, were men of a different spirit, and showed themselves friendly to the gospel and its preachers. Thus Gamaliel advised the Sanhedrin, when the apostles were before them charged with "teaching in this name," to "refrain from these men and let them alone" (Act 5:34; compare Act 23:9).

Scrip A small bag or wallet usually fastened to the girdle (Sa1 17:40); "a shepherd's bag." In the New Testament it is the rendering of Gr. pera , which was a bag carried by travelers and shepherds, generally made of skin (Mat 10:10; Mar 6:8; Luk 9:3; Luk 10:4). The name "scrip" is meant to denote that the bag was intended to hold scraps, fragments, as if scraped off from larger articles, trifles.

Scripture Invariably in the New Testament denotes that definite collection of sacred books, regarded as given by inspiration of God, which we usually call the Old Testament (Ti2 3:15, Ti2 3:16; Joh 20:9; Gal 3:22; Pe2 1:20). It was God's purpose thus to perpetuate his revealed will. From time to time he raised up men to commit to writing in an infallible record the revelation he gave. The "Scripture," or collection of sacred writings, was thus enlarged from time to time as God saw necessary. We have now a completed "Scripture," consisting of the Old and New Testaments. The Old Testament canon in the time of our Lord was precisely the same as that which we now possess under that name. He placed the seal of his own authority on this collection of writings, as all equally given by inspiration (Mat 5:17; Mat 7:12; Mat 22:40; Luk 16:29, Luk 16:31). (See BIBLE; CANON.)

Scythian The Scythians consisted of "all the pastoral tribes who dwelt to the north of the Black Sea and the Caspian, and were scattered far away toward the east. Of this vast country but little was anciently known. Its modern representative is Russia, which, to a great extent, includes the same territories." They were the descendants of Japheth (Gen 9:27). It appears that in apostolic times there were some of this people that embraced Christianity (Col 3:11).

Sea, The (Heb. yam ), signifies (1.) "the gathering together of the waters," the ocean (Gen 1:10); (2.) a river, as the Nile (Isa 19:5), the Euphrates (Isa 21:1; Jer 51:36); (3.) the Red Sea (Exo 14:16, Exo 14:27; Exo 15:4, etc.); (4.) the Mediterranean (Exo 23:31; Num 34:6, Num 34:7; Jos 15:47; Psa 80:11, etc.); (5.) the "sea of Galilee," an inland fresh-water lake, and (6.) the Dead Sea or "salt sea" (Gen 14:3; Num 34:3, Num 34:12, etc.). The word "sea" is used symbolically in Isa 60:5, where it probably means the nations around the Mediterranean. In Dan 7:3, Rev 13:1 it may mean the tumultuous changes among the nations of the earth.

Sea of Jazer (Jer 48:32), a lake, now represented by some ponds in the high valley in which the Ammonite city of Jazer lies, the ruins of which are called Sar.

Sea, The Molten The great laver made by Solomon for the use of the priests in the temple, described in Kg1 7:23; Ch2 4:2. It stood in the south-eastern corner of the inner court. It was 5 cubits high, 10 in diameter from brim to brim, and 30 in circumference. It was placed on the backs of twelve oxen, standing with their faces outward. It was capable of containing two or three thousand baths of water (compare Ch2 4:5), which was originally supplied by the Gibeonites, but was afterwards brought by a conduit from the pools of Bethlehem. It was made of "brass" (copper), which Solomon had taken from the captured cities of Hadarezer, the king of Zobah (Ch1 18:8). Ahaz afterwards removed this laver from the oxen, and placed it on a stone pavement (Kg2 16:17). It was destroyed by the Chaldeans (Kg2 25:13).