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Bar-jesus Son of Joshua, the patronymic of Elymas the sorcerer (Act 13:6), who met Paul and Barnabas at Paphos. Elymas is a word of Arabic origin meaning "wise."

Bar-jona Son of Jonah, the patronymic of Peter (Mat 16:17; Joh 1:42), because his father's name was Jonas. (See Peter.)

Barkos Painter, (Ezr 2:53; Neh 7:55). The father of some of the Nethinim.

Barley A grain much cultivated in Egypt (Exo 9:31) and in Palestine (Lev 27:16; Deu 8:8). It was usually the food of horses (Kg1 4:28). Barley bread was used by the poorer people (Jdg 7:13; Kg2 4:42). Barley of the first crop was ready for the harvest by the time of the Passover, in the middle of April (Rut 1:22; Sa2 21:9). Mention is made of barley-meal (Num 5:15). Our Lord fed five thousand with "five barley loaves and two small fishes" (Joh 6:9).

Barn A storehouse (Deu 28:8; Job 39:12; Hag 2:19) for grain, which was usually under ground, although also sometimes above ground (Luk 12:18).

Barnabas Son of consolation, the surname of Joses, a Levite (Act 4:36). His name stands first on the list of prophets and teachers of the church at Antioch (Act 13:1). Luke speaks of him as a "good man" (Act 11:24). He was born of Jewish parents of the tribe of Levi. He was a native of Cyprus, where he had a possession of land (Act 4:36, Act 4:37), which he sold. His personal appearance is supposed to have been dignified and commanding (Act 14:11, Act 14:12). When Paul returned to Jerusalem after his conversion, Barnabas took him and introduced him to the apostles (Act 9:27). They had probably been companions as students in the school of Gamaliel. The prosperity of the church at Antioch led the apostles and brethren at Jerusalem to send Barnabas thither to superintend the movement. He found the work so extensive and weighty that he went to Tarsus in search of Saul to assist him. Saul returned with him to Antioch and laboured with him for a whole year (Act 11:25, Act 11:26). The two were at the end of this period sent up to Jerusalem with the contributions the church at Antioch had made for the poorer brethren there (Act 11:28). Shortly after they returned, bringing John Mark with them, they were appointed as missionaries to the heathen world, and in this capacity visited Cyprus and some of the principal cities of Asia Minor (Act 13:14). Returning from this first missionary journey to Antioch, they were again sent up to Jerusalem to consult with the church there regarding the relation of Gentiles to the church (Act 15:2; Gal 2:1). This matter having been settled, they returned again to Antioch, bringing the decree of the council as the rule by which Gentiles were to be admitted into the church. When about to set forth on a second missionary journey, a dispute arose between Saul and Barnabas as to the propriety of taking John Mark with them again. The dispute ended by Saul and Barnabas taking separate routes. Saul took Silas as his companion, and journeyed through Syria and Cilicia; while Barnabas took his nephew John Mark, and visited Cyprus (Act 15:36). Barnabas is not again mentioned by Luke in the Acts.

Barrel A vessel used for keeping flour (Kg1 17:12, Kg1 17:14, Kg1 17:16). The same word (cad) so rendered is also translated "pitcher," a vessel for carrying water (Gen 24:14; Jdg 7:16).

Barren For a woman to be barren was accounted a severe punishment among the Jews (Gen 16:2; 30:1-23; Sa1 1:6, Sa1 1:27; Isa 47:9; Isa 49:21; Luk 1:25). Instances of barrenness are noticed (Gen 11:30; Gen 25:21; Gen 29:31; Jdg 13:2, Jdg 13:3; Luk 1:7, Luk 1:36).

Barsabas Son of Saba, the surname (1.) of Joseph, also called Justus (Act 1:23), some identify him with Barnabas; (2.) of Judas, who was a "prophet." Nothing more is known of him than what is mentioned in Act 15:32.

Bartholomew Son of Tolmai, one of the twelve apostles (Mat 10:3; Act 1:13); generally supposed to have been the same as Nathanael. In the synoptic gospels Philip and Bartholomew are always mentioned together, while Nathanael is never mentioned; in the fourth gospel, on the other hand, Philip and Nathanael are similarly mentioned together, but nothing is said of Bartholomew. He was one of the disciples to whom our Lord appeared at the Sea of Tiberias after his resurrection (Joh 21:2). He was also a witness of the Ascension (Act 1:4, Act 1:12, Act 1:13). He was an "Israelite indeed" (Joh 1:47).